A common criticism of the Biblical Chronology is that it contrasts the recent academic consensus that the building of the Pyramids began around 2630 B.C. However, Egyptian written records do a poor job of tracking reign lengths of Pharaohs, order of Pharaohs, and dates for the reigns.
List of Pharaohs
The following is a list of Pharaohs, beginning with the most recent.[notes 1]
Dates provided are for the academic consensus (Consensus Reign). Evidential Reign refers to the reign length as evidentially supported by actual written archaeological sources. Only Pharaohs with reign lengths recorded in the Evidential Reign column have had their reign lengths archaeologically confirmed, as will be noted in the Evidence column. The Evidence column summarizes the archaeological written evidence for concluding the reign length.
Due to the existence of numerous dynasties (over 30) variously controlling Egypt or different parts of it, Pharaohs from different dynasties sometimes overlap with one another chronologically. I have nonetheless tried to keep them as linearly organized as possible by organizing them according to the Consensus Reign Start date.
|Name||Consensus Reign||Evidential Reign||Evidence|
|Nectanebo II[notes 2]||359||342|
|Ruled by the Persians|
Key Archaeological Evidence
- Turin Kings List: The Turin Kings List appears to be the most reliable early source for Pharaonic reign lengths. It is however extremely incomplete, with lacunae that are in many places unreadable.
- Aegyptiaca by Manetho: Manetho's Aegyptiaca is commonly used as a primary source of information about Pharaonic reign lengths despite numerous issues with potential corruption of the text.
The Palermo Stone also provides some early information although its use of chronological events is not straightforward for dating purposes.
The Karnak Kings List and Abydos Kings List provide early lists of names.
- ↑ I begin with the most recent instead of the alleged oldest because, given the poor quality of the record-keeping, it gets ever more speculative.
- ↑ I begin with Nectanebo II because he was the last native Pharaoh to rule Egypt. Egypt was essentially run by the Persians and Romans in the subsequent centuries.