From BibleStrength
US-Mexico border fence near El Paso, TX authorized by the Secure Fence Act (2006).

The DCI position is that the borders should be secured to stop drug/sex/weapons trafficking as well as terrorist infiltration. Widespread Democrat voter fraud necessitates eVerify. Remittances should also be taxed. However, such changes should be accompanied by commonsense reforms as well, including at a minimum a national apology for the Mexican Repatriation and citizenship for military veterans.

Need for Securing the Borders

The drug cartels are killing thousands on both sides of the border, and drug overdoses take thousands more lives every year. For purposes of national sovereignty a nation must have defined borders. Securing the border is essential to stopping weapons/drugs/sex trafficking as well as terrorist infiltration. Millions of American youth have their lives destroyed as they become enslaved to drugs.

Nationwide Drug Epidemic

Over 70,000 Americans die each year from drug overdose.[1] Furthermore, most drugs cross illegally in the form of Marijuana, a gateway drug that leads to other addictions; between border checkpoints rather than at them.[2] Nor is it just Americans who are suffering. Mexico reached a record high in murders in 2018, driven by drug cartel violence.[3] It is in the best interests of both countries and their people that the border be secured.

Terrorist Infiltration

Since 2001, 157 people on terrorist watch lists have been apprehended attempting to cross the border illegally.[4] It is a matter of national security that the border be secured for the protection of the American people.

Biblical Standards

No Basis for Hating Immigrants

Fair Treatment of Immigrants

People who hate immigrants cannot call themselves Christians. God repeatedly said throughout the Bible to treat immigrants (KJV strangers) fairly. It is one of the clearest teachings in the Bible.

See Exodus 12:49; 22:21; 23:12; Leviticus 19:10, 33-34; 23:22; 24:22; Numbers 15:16, 29; Deuteronomy 1:16; 10:18; 14:29; 16:11-14; 23:7; 24:14-21; 26:11-13; 27:19; 31:12; 1 Chronicles 16:19; 29:15; 2 Chronicles 6:32-33; Psalms 39:12; 94:6; 146:9; Jeremiah 7:6; 22:3; Ezekiel 22:7, 29; Obadiah 1:12; Zechariah 7:10; Malachi 3:5; Matthew 25:35-44; Luke 17:18; Acts 13:17; Ephesians 2:19; 1 Timothy 5:10; Hebrews 11:13; 13:2; 1 Peter 2:11; 3 John 1:5; and James 5:1-11.

Israelites Were Immigrants

GOD reminded the Israelites that they themselves were immigrants in the Egypt. (Ex. 22:21; Lev. 19:34; 25:23; De. 10:19; 16:12; 23:7; 26:5) The Israelites were an unusual people which throughout their history ended up as immigrants in foreign lands, and have continued that trend to the present day; having become dispersed throughout all nations following the Babylonian Captivity. (1 Chr. 29:10; Psalms 39:12) Christians themselves are described as foreigners, pilgrims in the Earth since Earth is not their home. (Heb. 11:13; 1 Pe. 2:11) Furthermore, a number of major patriarchs in the Bible were immigrants:

  • Abraham: Abraham was a stranger or foreigner in the lands he traveled through, and stated as much when asking the people of Heth for a place to bury his relatives. (Genesis 23:3-4) Abraham was also told by GOD that his descendants would be strangers in a land not theirs, Egypt, for 400 years. (Genesis 15:13)
  • Isaac: Isaac described himself and Jacob as strangers in the land, or foreigners/migrants. (Genesis 28:4-5; 37:1)
  • Jacob (Israel): See previous.
  • Joseph: Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt, spending his life in a foreign land. (Genesis 37:28,36)
  • Moses: Moses, born a prince in the land of Egypt, was forced to flee after killing an Egyptian slavemaster, and lived his life in exile in the land of Midian. For that reason he called his son Gershom 'for he said, I have been a stranger in a strange land.' (Exodus 2:22; 18:3; Acts 17:29)
  • David: David stated that he and the Israelites, like their forefathers, were all immigrants and travelers through foreign lands. (1 Chronicles 29:10; Psalms 39:12) David also reiterates that he is a stranger or foreigner in Psalms 119:19. David was forced to stay in neighboring lands while in exile from Saul, including Moab (1 Samuel 22:3-5) and Gath. (1 Samuel 27)
  • Ruth: She was a stranger in Israel who migrated after her husband died. (Ru. 2:10)
  • Jesus: Jesus's parents, Joseph and Mary, fled with Him to Egypt when He was young after Herod attempted to kill Him, where they stayed until Herod died. (Mt. 2:15; Ho. 11:1)

Stricter Language Requirements

While a Biblical basis exists for treating foreigners fairly, there is also precedent for expecting foreigners to integrate into society, adapting to the culture. Foreigners or strangers staying in Israel were expected to:

  • Have all male children circumcised. (Ex. 12:48)
  • Keep the Passover. (Ex. 12:48; Nu. 9:14) They first had to be circumcised before they could eat it and be treated as an Israelite. (Ex. 12:43)

Israelites were repeatedly and consistently ordered to have the same laws for foreigners as for those born in the land. (Ex. 12:49; Lev. 19:34; 24:22; Nu. 9:14; 15:15-16,29-30) This included:

  • A prohibition of working on the Sabbath to let them rest (De. 5:14; Ex. 20:10; 23:12)
  • A prohibition of working on Yom Kippur (Le. 16:29)
  • A prohibition of eating food with the blood (Le. 17:12)
  • Quarantine and washing for those eating animals which died apart from human intervention (Le. 17:15)
  • A prohibition on committing incest, adultery, child sacrifice, homosexuality, or bestiality (Le. 18)
  • Leaving portions of one's fields unreaped for them and the poor to gather from (Le. 23:22; De. 24:19-21)
  • Sharing the food from each 7th year with them and the poor (Le. 25:6)
  • The death penalty for blaspheming GOD's name (Le. 24:16)
  • Allowing sin offerings to be made for them by the priests (Nu. 15:26)
  • Allowing them to flee to sanctuary cities as refuges for those who had mistakenly killed another person (Jos. 20:9; Nu. 35:15)
  • Righteous judgment in court of law (De. 1:16; 24:17; 27:19)
  • Allowing them to share in three-year tithes of food for them, Levites, orphans, and widows (De. 14:29; 26:12-13)
  • Allowing them to share in the feast of weeks along with the Levites, orphans, and widows (De. 16:11)

However, foreigners that had not been circumcised were not to be given the Passover (Ex. 12:43), make or eat burnt offerings (Ex. 29:33), be priests (Ex. 30:33; Le. 22:10,25), have relatives that were priests (Le. 22:12), or come near the temple (Nu. 1:51; 3:10,38; 18:4,7). They could be lent to with usury. (De. 23:20) However once circumcised and keeping the Passover (Ex. 12:48) they could make offerings to the LORD. (Le. 15:14) Nonetheless only Levites directly descended from Aaron could be priests offering incense. (Nu. 16:40)

As such, an expectation that foreigners integrate into society by adapting to the culture and language is entirely reasonable. 'A house divided cannot stand' as Jesus pointed out. (Mt. 12:25) For the sake of cohesion, a nation should stand united in language and culture to large degree; lest divisions break the nation apart. As such, foreigners immigrating to the U.S. should be able to speak English and pass an American civics/history test showing they will integrate into American society.

Cost-Effective Solutions

Return Troops to Guard the Borders

It would be far more cost-effective for U.S. troops to spend their time guarding U.S. borders than overseas. Spending on national defense in 2018 is 15.8% of the U.S. budget ($656.3 billion). After health and retirement, military spending is the third-largest expense in the U.S. budget.

However, only 22.7% of the national defense budget is spent on 'Military Personnel' ($146.1 billion) and only 11.29% is spent on 'Research, Development, Test and Evaluation.' ($74.1 billion) The majority of military spending relates to direct war costs unrelated to payroll or research. 'Operation and Maintenance' is 39.42% of the defense budget ($258.7 billion) and 'Procurement' is 18.94% ($124.3 billion). As such a total of $383 billion in defense spending could be reduced by simply paying U.S. troops to do something more cost-effective like guarding the borders which would require less spending on operations, maintenance, and procurement.

Furthermore, returning troops to guard the borders would give a boost to U.S. employment. Troops would now be spending their salaries here in the U.S., creating jobs here instead of overseas. Adding thousands of employed consumers to the economy could do nothing but help.

Tax Remittances

Remittances, immigrants sending billions of U. S. dollars overseas to other countries, is a serious problem that costs the U.S. billions of dollars each year. In 2017 alone, $148.5 billion was sent overseas in the form of remittances.[5] This should really be taxed, and could be used to fund a border wall.

Need for eVerify: Democrat Voter Fraud

See Voter Fraud

Obama in April 2014 falsely claimed that "The real voter fraud is people who try to deny our rights by making bogus arguments about voter fraud."[6] However, contrary to Obama's lies, Democrat voter fraud has been pervasive and consistent under his administration. The Republican National Lawyers Association has catalogued nearly 200 cases of Democrat voter fraud just since 2011.[7] Some of the more prominent examples of Democrat voter fraud in recent years include:

  • Four Indiana Democrats charged with election fraud for helping put Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton on the ballot in Indiana in 2008.[8]
  • Wendy Rosen, a Democrat running for Maryland's 1st Congressional District, resigned in September of 2012, and pled guilty in 2013 to voting illegally in two elections.[9] Rosen was sentenced to five years’ probation and a $5,000 fine.[10]
  • The 2008 ACORN national scandal had numerous cases of Democrat voter fraud across the United States leading to 18 convictions.[12] In Philadelphia alone 1,500 fraudulent voter registrations were submitted.[13]
  • Al Franken, the Senator who gave Democrats their supermajority in 2009, won through a recount where 12,000 absentee ballots were thrown out.[14] According to the New York Times, “Mr. Franken won by 312 votes, while state officials rejected 12,000 absentee ballots.”[15] Despite trailing at the end of the election, thousands of mysterious absentee ballots emerged after the elections had closed to given Franken the victory and Democrats complete control of Congress, allowing them to pass any legislation they wanted without Republican votes.[16]
  • The Chief of Staff for Florida State Representative Joe Garcia, Jeffrey Garcia (no relation) resigned on May 31st, 2013 for manipulating the 2012 Florida elections with hundreds of fake absentee ballots.[17]
  • James Webb Baker of Seattle pleaded guilty to one count of voter intimidation and one count of identification fraud for sending fake letters to 200 Republican Party donors in Florida warning them they would be arrested if voting.[18]
  • The son and Director of Field Operations for Democrat Representative Jim Moran resigned from his campaign in October of 2012 after being caught on video explaining how to use voter fraud to help Obama win the election.[19] The Congressman’s son Patrick Moran can be seen on recorded video saying “Bank statement would obviously be tough, but they can fake a utility bill easily enough, you know?”[20] Moran's son endorsed a scheme to fraudulently vote on behalf of 100 people.[21]
  • A Democrat State Representative in Massachusetts, Stephen Smith, pled guilty to charges of voter fraud in December of 2012. Smith used fraudulent absentee ballots in both 2009 and 2010.[22] According to the FBI's report Smith's plea agreement required that he resign from office on January 1st, 2013, and he will not be eligible to run for office for five years afterward.[23]
  • In March 2013 a Democrat poll worker, Melowese Richardson, was indicted for voting illegally at least six times in the 2012 elections, along with illegal votes in both 2008 and 2011. Richardson defended her illegal actions by saying, “I'll fight it for Mr. Obama and Mr. Obama's right to sit as president of the United States.”[24] Also indicted for illegal voting were Marguerite Kloos and Russell Glassop.[25] A year later Al Sharpton honored Melowese Richardson at a rally after she was released early from a 5-year prison sentence, going so far as to hug her for committing voter fraud to help Obama win.[26]
  • In February 2014 a Philadelphia election worker was arrested for tampering with voting machines during the November 2013 election. Dianah Gregory, a Democrat, forced her way into an election booth to write her name on another voter’s ballot for the position of election judge, and wrote her name on the side of the booth.[27] She has since been sentenced to 15 months’ probation, fined $5,000, and is required to perform 15 hours of community service.[28]
  • Eight different Democrat officials stand accused of voter fraud in the 2009 Working Families Primary, and as of January 2012, four of them had pleaded guilty to falsifying absentee ballots. Hundreds of faked ballots, as well as forgery instruments, were uncovered by the investigation.[29]
  • In September 2012 Democrat State Representative Hudson Hallum pleaded guilty to bribing voters with chicken dinners and cheap vodka for their absentee ballots in a 2011 election.[30] Also pleading guilty were two other Democrats, his father Kent Hallum and West Memphis City Councilman Phillip Wayne Carter; as well as a West Memphis Police Officer named Sam Malone.[31] Hallum was ultimately sentenced to three years’ probation including nine months of home confinement, fined $20,000, and ordered to perform 100 hours of community service.[32]

Mexico Requires Photo ID to Vote, Why Don't We?

Mexico requires holographic voter IDs with thumbprints be shown in order to vote, yet here in the U.S. we have not yet caught up to the electoral advances of Mexico.[33] It makes no sense that the country from whom all the immigration comes requires photo I.D. to vote, with holograms and thumbprints no less, but here in the U.S. such sensible measures are rejected. They are perfectly reasonable requirements needed to stop widespread Democrat Voter Fraud.

Border Wall Executive Order Constitutionality

Senator Thom Tillis, a Republican, questioned whether or not Donald Trump's emergency executive order for border wall funding is constitutional, given that it bypasses Congress.

As a general rule, the Defending Conservatism Institute opposes wide-reaching executive orders. Considerable thought was given to whether such an executive order constituted executive overreach before endorsing the order. And it is true that conservatives, including myself, have criticized Obama for far-reaching executive orders in the past, and rightfully so.

So what makes this executive order different? Frankly, it has statutory basis, which is the gold standard for the constitutionality of executive orders, as previously noted by Karl Rove.

Congress deliberately gave the President wide-ranging authority to declare national emergencies in the 1976 National Emergencies Act. If it does not agree with giving him that power, the correct, constitutional method to remove it is to pass a new law revoking the Act, and override the Presidential veto if necessary.

Now, as to the Constitutionality of the Act, Congress can clearly vest authority in the President when it comes to the appointment of inferior officers per Article II, Sec. 2. Whether it can vest its own constitutional legislative/law-making authority in the President (per Article I, Sec. 1) is a bit murkier. Hobwever, numerous Presidents have been using the national emergency power for decades, they have been passing executive orders, and of course numerous Cabinet bureaus and departments exercise powers that arguably include those which are Constitutionally delegated to the Legislative branch in Article I, Sec. 8.

If there is a clearer question about the declaration’s constitutionality, it involves the use of revenue raising powers. According to the Constitution’s Article I, Sec. 7, all bills for raising revenue are to start in the House of Representatives. However, the National Emergencies Act itself passes that test, since it started in the House.

The question however, is whether Presidential emergency declarations are skirting the requirement of taxes starting with the House of Representatives. Nonetheless, if Senators (including Thom Tillis) were concerned with that question, they should have repealed the Affordable Care Act, since first of all, it did not even start in the House, and secondly it was only upheld as constitutional (by Justices Kavanaugh and Roberts no less) under the justification that it was a tax. The courts then rejected the argument that the ACA was unconstitutional because it was a tax yet did not start in the House.

Furthermore, many of the ACA’s provisions were comprised of executive orders apart from Congressional statutes. Congress, including the Senate, has shown no interest over the past two years in getting rid of Obamacare. It is a little late to suddenly show outrage over an executive order that, unlike those with the ACA, explicitly derives its authority from legislation delegating that authority as passed by Congress. I have no issue with any Congressmen who oppose the executive order on grounds that it gives the President too much power. This is a complex enough issue for there to be room in both opposing and supporting the declaration.

Executive orders have arguably been used to usurp authority from the Legislative branch in recent years, and at some point will need to be curtailed by Congress. However, Congress specifically authorized the President’s national emergency authority in 1976, and if it wants that authority removed, it should accept responsibility for delegating it in the first place, and act to more clearly refine that power through new legislation.

A Statutory Basis

Even aside from the fact that the border situation would seemingly qualify as a national emergency at a time when the drug overdose epidemic is of national concern (over 70,000 people died last year alone from drug overdose[1]), an executive order to secure the border is arguably consistent with other legislation already passed by Congress, including:[36]

  • The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 “ which, among other things, explicitly gave the Attorney General (now the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security) broad authority to construct barriers along the border and authorized the construction of a secondary layer of fencing to buttress the completed 14-mile primary fence.”
  • The Secure Fence Act of 2006 which authorized 700 miles of fencing along the border. The chain link fencing was, for all intents and purposes, a ‘wall.’
    US-Mexico border fence authorized by the Secure Fence Act of 2006.
  • The REAL ID Act of 2005 “that authorized the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to waive all legal requirements in order to expedite the construction of border barriers.”
  • The Border Tunnel Prevention Act of 2012 which sought to limit the use of tunnels across the border.

It makes no sense for Congress and the courts to oppose an executive order which clearly has more statutory basis and constitutionality than Obamacare executive orders unless doing so is for political reasons.

How to Pass Immigration Reform

An immigration reform bill is more likely to pass if accompanied by at least some of the following commonsense measures:

Mexican Repatriation Apology

Roughly 2 million American citizens of hispanic heritage were deported into Mexico to free up jobs during the Great Depression, a wrong the United States has never apologized for.[37] A simple apology for that wrong would do much to mend bridges with the hispanic community. A further good faith effort would be creation of a public department to assist hispanics in examining public records to determine who is descended from former U.S. citizens.

Citizenship for Military Veterans

One would think military veterans would automatically become U.S. citizens but hundreds of veterans have been deported, including Daniel Torres (U.S. Marines), Marco Antonio Chavez (U.S. Marines), Hector Barajas-Varela (Paratrooper), Erasmo Apodaca, and Miguel Perez (U.S. Army).[38]

Citizenship for Native Americans

Another commonsense reform would be to allow those who can provide evidence of ancestry from U.S. Native American tribes (e.g. genealogical or genetic testing) to become U.S. citizens. A possible test would be 1/16th blood quantum, a common standard for joining Native American tribes, although 1/8th or 1/4 are possible alternatives as well.[39]

Most hispanics are a combination of Native Americans and Spanish conquistadors so many may have the same ancestry as those on reservations.[40] Because Mexico owned the states of Texas, California, New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma, Nevada, and Wyoming prior to the Mexican-American War, there will be overlap between many Mexicans and U. S. Native American tribes, so they could reasonably apply for status due to their Native American ancestry on a case-by-case basis.[41] Some hispanic families have lived on their land in U.S. states before the land even belonged to the United States.[42]

Not Justification for Demonizing Immigrants or Hispanics

Crime Statistics

Immigrant Crime Statistics

It is commonly and falsely claimed that illegal immigrants, particularly hispanics, commit a substantial amount of crime. Actual crime statistics show otherwise. Immigrants in general commit less crime, likely due to more conservative upbringings.[43]

Racial Crime Statistics

Even though there are similar levels of poverty among hispanics as among blacks, and there are more hispanics than blacks, hispanics do not commit nearly as much violent crime or murders as blacks.[44] For example, blacks make up 13.4% of the U.S. population yet account for 52.6% of all murders and non-negligent manslaughter. Hispanics account for 18.1% of the U.S. population yet account for just 20.0% of all murders and non-negligent manslaughter.[45]

Yes, to a degree the racial distinctions are just indicative of racial differences in poverty. Poorer people tend to commit more crime because of their environments and circumstances (and richer people tend to get off the hook even when caught for crimes like embezzlement because they can pay off a judge). However, hispanics have nearly comparable poverty levels to blacks yet do not commit even half as much crime as blacks do. Since many illegal immigrants are hispanics, the statistics suggest they are much less likely to commit crime than black U.S.-born citizens.

2016 Crime Rates, by Race[notes 1]
Race Population % Poverty % Murder % Rape % Robbery % Aggravated Assault % Burglary % Larceny-Theft % Motor-Vehicle Theft %
White 60.7% 8.0% 44.7% 67.6% 43.4% 62.8% 68.4% 69.0% 66.0%
Black 13.4% 20.0% 52.6% 29.1% 54.5% 33.3% 29.1% 27.7% 30.7%
Hispanic 18.1% 16.0% 20.0% 27.0% 21.1% 24.4% 20.8% 14.6% 26.8%
Sources: "2016 Crime in the United States: Table 21-Arrests by Race and Ethnicity." FBI.[45]
"QuickFacts." U.S. Census Bureau.[46]
"Poverty Rate by Race/Ethnicity." Kaiser Family Foundation.[47]

The following table shows how much crime each race commits in proportion to the percentage of the population they make up. For example, blacks commit 52.6% of all murders but are just 13.4% of the population, so they are 3.93 times as likely to commit murder as their percentage of the population (52.6% / 13.4%), whereas hispanics commit 20.0% of all murders but are 18.1% of the population, so they are 1.11 times as likely to commit murder as their percentage of the population. This allows for easy comparison between races when it comes to crime. For example, blacks are 3.55 times more likely to commit murder than hispanics are (3.925 / 1.105).

2016 Crime Rates, by Race, In Proportion to Population Percentage
Race Population % Poverty % Murder % Rape % Robbery % Aggravated Assault % Burglary % Larceny-Theft % Motor-Vehicle Theft %
White 60.7% 8.0% 73.6% 111.4% 71.5% 103.5% 112.7% 113.7% 108.7%
Black 13.4% 20.0% 392.5% 217.2% 406.7% 248.5% 217.2% 206.7% 229.1%
Hispanic 18.1% 16.0% 110.5% 149.2% 116.6% 134.8% 114.9% 80.7% 148.1%
Sources: "2016 Crime in the United States: Table 21-Arrests by Race and Ethnicity." FBI.[45]
"QuickFacts." U.S. Census Bureau.[46]
"Poverty Rate by Race/Ethnicity." Kaiser Family Foundation.[47]

Ironically, Democrats are advocating reparations solely to benefit African-Americans while ignoring Hispanics, Native Americans, and other groups; even as a number of leading African-Americans demonize Hispanics as criminals, even though African-Americans commit far more crime than Hispanics despite being fewer in number.

Labor Statistics

No, immigrants are not freeloaders. On any construction site, warehouse, or factory they are over-represented relative to their 18.1% population percentage, doing the hardest, most undesirable jobs. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, adult male hispanics are easily the most likely group to be employed, as measured by the employment-population ratio, at 77.1%. They are over-represented in:[48]

  • Painters, construction and maintenance, comprising 53% of all workers.
  • Miscellaneous agricultural workers, comprising 51% of all workers.
  • Maids and housekeeping cleaners, comprising 49% of all workers.
  • Natural resources, construction and maintenance, comprising 28% of all workers.

They are paid low wages for doing the hardest work to make American society operate, and are constantly mistreated, exploited, and underpaid by unscrupulous employers. They get charged billions of dollars for benefits like Social Security through payroll and excise taxes which they will never have access to, to the extent that they are a main reason Social Security isn't even more bankrupt than it is.[49]

Mexican Abolition, Mexican-American War

It is little-known that the Mexican-American War occurred because Mexico outlawed slavery. As Frederick Douglass pointed out in his address at Belfast Ireland, Mexico originally opened its borders to modern-day Texas (then part of Mexico) because it had too much land and not enough settlers. Numerous Americans came in, many of them bringing their slaves. However, Mexico then outlawed slavery in 1829. The ex-American slaveholders attempted to circumvent this by declaring slaves indentured servants, but this too was outlawed by Mexico. Furious, the settlers, led by Sam Austin, petitioned the U.S. government, claiming that Texas wanted to cede from Mexico. U.S. President James Polk, along with the Democratic Party, acceded to the request, knowing that more slave states were needed to protect the institution of slavery at a time when free states were beginning to outnumber the slave states. Thus the U.S. started a war with Mexico to create more slave states out of the captured territory (Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Colorado).

Polk sent U.S. troops to the border between the U.S. and Texas to start a war, and then falsely claimed that Mexican troops attacked first. As a result, three U.S. Presidents all condemned the Mexican-American War because of Democrats' dishonesty in starting a war on false pretenses in the name of slavery, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and John Quincy Adams.[50] Ulysses S. Grant even expressed the view that the Civil War was God's divine punishment upon America for its unjust actions in the Mexican-American War, stating, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war of modern times."[51]

To quote Frederick Douglass:

Opposition by U.S. Presidents and Republican Party


  1. These statistics include both hispanic and non-hispanic whites in the White category and both hispanic and non-hispanic blacks in the Black category because of the way the FBI did their methodology. They should have separated non-hispanic whites and non-hispanic blacks into individual categories but did not.


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