Noah's Flood Evidence

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The following are evidences for Noah's Flood having occurred in the past. For a broader examination of evidence for Creationism in general, see Creationism.

Fossil Evidence[edit | hide | hide all]

Mass Marine Fossilization[edit | hide]

In 2011 it was discovered that a rapid catastrophe led to deoxygenation and rising CO2 levels in ancient oceans, resulting in mass extinction of marine organisms worldwide.[2]

Trilobites[edit | hide]

Trilobites have been fossilized around the world in life position, buried beneath tons of sediment in the acts of mating and migration. The same mass fossilization of trilobites can be seen globally in locations such as Oklahoma, Morocco, and Poland.[4] The fossils are so well-preserved that scientists have even been able to see traces of the sensory receptor cells that link their eyes to their brains on the back of the eye lenses.[5]

As the Institute for Creation Research points out, "trilobite fossils are producing some of the strongest evidence of catastrophic burial. A recent study found that many of these creatures were inundated rapidly while they were still alive!"[6]

Crustaceans[edit | hide]

In 2014 ancient underwater crustaceans were discovered (an alleged 500 million years old), 100 ostracods "entombed" when a huge layer of mud hit them from above, fossilizing them with their eggs and newly hatched offspring, preserving soft tissue such as delicate eggshells.[7]

Ichthyosaurs[edit | hide]

Ancient ichthyosaurs, huge marine reptiles, have also been discovered entombed in huge layers of flood sediment. As the Scientific American puts it (attempting to hypothesize away the possibility of a global Flood), "Occasionally, there would have been mudflows that cascaded into the water like an avalanche, and the researchers think these mudflows killed the ichthyosaurs. The animals likely became disoriented and drowned, getting sucked into the deep sea, where their bodies were entombed in the sediment, the researchers said."[8]

Instantaneous Fossilization[edit | hide]

Titanosaurs[edit | hide]

One of the largest creatures to ever walk the Earth, a Titanosaur, was clearly fossilized via flooding. The titanic brontosaur was discovered in Saudi Arabia and publicized in 2014, until then few dinosaur fossils had been discovered in the Middle East. It would take a sizable flood to kill a creature as large as the one which was fossilized.[9]

What is more, another Titanosaur, a new species, was publicized, also in 2014, with the probable cause of death officially listed as flooding. Given the name Rukwatitan bisepultus, it was discovered in Argentina.[11]

Cynodont/Thrinaxodon Burrow[edit | hide]

An ancient reptile was found entombed in a burrow with a mammal, a clear example of flood fossilization.[12]

Mesozoic Birds[edit | hide]

A colony of Mesozoic birds, allegedly 100 million years old, were discovered fossilized by a flood so rapid that it entombed them in life position. So complete was the preservation that even "full, well-preserved eggs" were discovered whose egg shells should have been destroyed by more gradual forms of preservation.

Nor is this the first time ancient birds have been found fossilized through apparent flooding. A separate case in 1986 discovered birds preserved in similar fashion.[15]

Dinosaur Eggs[edit | hide]

In 2013 a cache of 20 dinosaur embryos of the long-necked Lufengosaurus, according to evolutionists 500 million years old, were discovered inside their eggs including "organic material" (i.e. soft tissue) that may include collagen fibres.[16] The dinosaur eggs were remarkably preserved by being flooded out of their nests and covered with a heavy layer of mud that turned into an 8 inch layer of sandstone.[17] One of the dinosaur embryo discoverers, Reisz, stated that "The nests were inundated by water and basically smothered, and the embryos inside the eggs died and then decayed. And then more water activity moved the bones and concentrated them into a very small area. We only excavated 1sq m of the ‘bone bed’ and we got more than 200 bones."[18] Creation scientists have been pointing out for years that such egg deposits indicate a global Flood.[19]

Marsupials[edit | hide]

The earliest example of social living in mammals, according to scientists, was publicized in May of 2011. Discovered in Bolivia, the ancient rodent-like marsupials, Pucadelphys andinus, were fossilized instantaneously as a group.

Zhucheng Dinosaur Grave[edit | hide]

In Zhucheng, China, hundreds of dinosaurs were fossilized in a mass grave, the largest of its kind on Earth, and preserved in seven different layers. The location where they died was at the time submerged in water, and the catastrophe appears to have brought the bodies together into one place. The monumental find is consistent with a giant flood coupled with volcanism that swept them into one low-lying area and deposited their remains depositionally into different layers. According to CBC News, "Scientists believe a volcanic eruption may have killed the dinosaurs, but that it was actually a subsequent flood that carried the fossils to Zhucheng, which may have been a wetland covered in grass."[21]

Mammoths[edit | hide]

Mammoths, like their modern-day elephant counterparts, were massive land animals, so how much water would be required to produce a flash flood preserving a herd containing 22 of them? In Waco, Texas, the mammoths were found fossilized along with other animals like a camel, antelope, alligator, giant tortoise, and sabertoothed tiger. The cause of death, according to the National Park Service, is listed as "rapidly rising flood waters."[23] In fact, burial was so rapid that Smithsonian Magazine's Megan Gannon writes that the "mammoths appear to have died in minutes."[24]

Pachyrhinosaurs[edit | hide]

In Alaska, herds of dinosaurs, both herbivores like the duck-billed Edmontosaurus and carnivorous theropods, were found fossilized in mass graves. To quote Anthony Fiorillo of Scientific American, "Like other hadrosaurs, Edmontosaurus were social animals that gathered in herds, as evinced by their bones, which have been found in piles at various places in northern Alaska as though groups of them had died in a flash flood."[25]

Humans[edit | hide]

Laeotoli First Family[edit | hide]

A group of 13 early Laetoli humans were discovered with few signs of weathering or attack from predators, resulting in hypothesizing by scientists that they were "entombed together in a flash flood."[26]

Australopithecus Afarensis[edit | hide]

An exceptionally well-preserved A. Afarensis fossil was publicized in 2006, an alleged 3.3 million years old. According to the Washington Post's Rob Stein, "The surroundings indicate that the child might have drowned in a flash flood, which immediately buried the intact remains in sand that hardened to encase the bones, the researchers said."[27]

Josh McDowell and Don Stewart Arguments[edit | hide]

Josh McDowell and Don Stewart make some very powerful arguments in favor of a global flood in Reasons Skeptics Should Consider Christianity, including:

Environmentally-Mixed Fossil Deposits[edit | hide]

McDowell & Stewart note in the chapter, "Are the fossil deposits environmentally mixed?" (pp. 199-201), that if the fossil record is truly the result of slow depositional and erosive forces over millions of years, we should not then find animals and plants from very different environmental zones buried together in rock stratum. However, if a global Flood is instead at work, we should see tropical life mixed with those found in temperate and arctic climates, as well other environments. Key quotes made in Reasons to prove the latter is true include the following:

McDowell & Stewart draw particular attention to Francis' observation that it's very difficult to explain coral mixed with insects and pine leaves from two separate continents, as coral grows only in the ocean, and typical explanations of how amber forms do not explain such severe mixing of oceanic content with material from both Japan and North America.

Depositional Rates[edit | hide]

In the chapter "Is fossilization evidence of a catastrophe?" (pp. 196-198) it is pointed out that "The process of fossilization is itself an evidence of abnormal deposition." Rotting of carcases begins to occur upon death, and then bacteria and scavengers (e.g. vultures), begin recycling the body's material. After this, weathering processes destroy the bones themselves, whether dissolution in the sea or weathering on land. The only way to preserve a carcass is to prevent the effects of both scavengers and weather, burying it deeply enough that the oxygen bacteria need is excluded, and rapidly enough that there is still something left to preserve.

However, J.B. Birdsell estimates the average rate of deposition during the last geologic epoch (the Pleistocene) was just .024 inches a year, not nearly enough required to preserve fossils.[32] It is pointed out that major fossil deposits shown around the world (e.g. the Karroo formation with over 800 million fossilized skeletons of vertebrate animals) indicate a tremendous amount of rapid sedimentation for fossilization. Other examples given include the Monterrey shale with over 1 billion fossil fish within 4 square miles, and the Mission Canyon formation and Williston Basin which are estimated to contain over 10,000 cubic miles of broken crinoid plates, crinoids being deep sea creatures. Reasons quotes Clark and Stearn's conclusion, "How many millions, billions, trillions of crinoids would be required to provide such a deposit? The number staggers the imagination."[33] Reasons concludes that it is more reasonable to believe a massive Flood rapidly deposited fossils than that slow, gradual depositional rates were responsible.

Rapid Sedimentation[edit | hide]

In the chapter "Was the sedimentation rapid?" (pp. 205-207) emphasis is made on whether the fossil record shows evidence of rapid sedimentation, or slow, gradual deposition at a rate of .024 inches a year (Birdsell's estimate). Reasons quotes the following sources to suggest that deposition was in fact far faster:

In analyzing these sources, it is noted in Reasons that the 2,600 feet of shale in the Green River formation contains 6.5 million bands, each of which is typically believed to have taken one year to deposit, making for a 6.5 million year depositional period. However, the fossil fish are pressed flat between the bands, the flesh outline of the fishes can be seen not just the bones, and the thickness of each band would make it difficult to preserve the fish. Reasons concludes that (a) the flesh outline indicates the fish were buried so rapidly they hadn't undergone decay, (b) deposition occurred with considerable pressure from above given the compression of fossils between bands, and (c) bands of just 1 mm or 5/1000 of an inch per year would make it virtually impossible to preserve the fish from bacteria and scavengers, and certainly not leave the flesh intact.

Fossilized Footprints[edit | hide]

In the chapter "Are footprints evidence of the flood?" McDowell & Stewart question how gradual depositional rates can possibly preserve the the numerous footprints found in the fossil record. While in some cases like mud, hardening might be a possible explanation, in others like sandstone where it is sand being hardened, it is difficult to explain how footprints could be fossilized before erosive forces like waves or wind could erase them. The only way to preserve them is to cover them rapidly with another substance from above, perhaps something which will harden rapidly such as lava. Particular emphasis in the chapter is made upon evidence of raindrops seen in footprints which indicate particularly rapid fossilization. Sources provided in the chapter include the following:

Reasons further asks why, in the last example, the animals are seen running uphill, and questions whether this could be due to rising Flood waters.

Flood Legends Worldwide[edit | hide]

If a global Flood did in fact occur we would expect to see shared reference to it across all cultures, not just those in the Middle East, which is exactly what we find. In the words of John D. Morris, "The only credible way to understand the widespread, similar flood legends is to recognize that all people living today, even though separated geographically, linguistically, and culturally, have descended from the few real people who survived a real global flood, on a real boat which eventually landed on a real mountain. Their descendants now fill the globe, never to forget the real event."[40] For a detailed compilation of Flood legends, see the list at the Northwest Creation Network.[41] Specific examples include:

Native American Flood Legends[edit | hide]

  • Algonquin: Similarities include a prophet and his wife saved by God from a huge Flood, escaping on a huge rounded wooden boat with pairs of land-animals and birds, and animals assisting in the voyages end, including a raven which flew over the water until dry land appeared. [42]
  • Caddo: Similarities include a great Flood that destroys evil, saving of all animal pairs, warning by God to a prophet and his wife, entering a large hollow wooden vessel to survive, and drying of the Earth through strong winds.[43]
  • Cheyenne: Similarities include sending of a Flood by a Creator to destroy a human race grown evil, humans surviving with animals, and a rainbow signaling the Flood's end. [44]
  • Chippewa: Similarly involves fleeing a great mountain-covering Flood by humans and animals via a wooden vessel. The protagonist's name Nanabozho is similar to Noah.[45]
  • Lakota: Similarities include drowning of the evil human race by a Creator via a Flood and animals leaving to retrieve soil. [46]
  • Pima: Similarities include the decision by the Creator to drown the world because of evil people, scoffing at a prophet's call to repent, saving of the just prophet and his wife in a rounded vessel, and stocking of the boat with food.[47]

Common Criticisms[edit | hide]

How Could Humans Repopulate Quickly Enough?[edit | hide]

See also Creationism - Human Population Growth

Current human population growth rates exceed 1% in the majority of countries today and at a 1% growth rate one goes from 8 people, the survivors of Noah's ark, to 7 billion in just 2,071 years.[48] Even at a rate just half those seen today, 0.50%, one goes from 8 people to 7 billion in 4,130 years. According to the principle "the present is the key to the past" rates in the past should be assumed the same as those today's, yet clearly this principle is not followed when to do so would not suit the theory of evolution.[49]

Year 2.00% Growth Rate 1.00% Growth Rate 0.50% Growth Rate 0.20% Growth Rate
Year 1 8 8 8 8
Year 500 156,522 1,147 96 22
Year 1,000 3,123,644,327 166,013 1,167 59
Year 2,000 1.244 x 10 ^ 18 3,479,494,693 171,020 434
Year 5000 7.859 x 10 ^ 43 3.204 x 10 ^ 22 538,558,280,604 174,112
Years To Reach 7 Billion Population 1,041 2,071 4,130 6,849

So what about disease, death, and war? Actually 3rd-world countries today with the most disease, death, and war, as well as minimal technology, have the highest population growth rates, rates in excess of 3%.[50] Evolutionist Dave Matson of TalkOrigins attempts to claim that "real" rates were only .07%, which, even if such a ridiculous assertion were to be accepted, would still result in 8 individuals reaching 7 billion in less than 30,000 years.[51] Actually human population growth rates are not an argument against a global Flood and a young earth, but for them.

Animals Couldn't Fit on the Ark[edit | hide]

See also Creationism - Rates of Microevolution

One of the most common criticisms of the Bible's account of the Flood is that Earth has too many animal species to fit on the Ark, given the Ark's dimensions. However, this ignores the realities of microevolution and speciation, which unlike macroevolution are established fact. Microevolution according to the University of California Berkeley is defined as "a change in gene frequency within a population. Evolution at this scale can be observed over short periods of time."[52]

Biblically, God as seen in Genesis 1 created core types of life, birds, mammals, reptiles, insects, and fish, which were commanded to multiply according to their species. For example an original dog species could, in spreading to different parts of the world, adapt to the different post-Flood climate conditions found in differing areas of the globe and become all the varieties of dogs witnessed today. Thus, only one dog species was needed on the ark, one cat species, and so on.

John Woodmorappe's estimate of less than 16,000 total animals and birds on the ark seems reasonable.[53] Large animals such as elephants, giraffes, and dinosaurs need not have been full-grown adults, but were likely young.

The atheist thus cannot dispute that far fewer animals would be needed on the ark if sufficient microevolutionary adaptation occurred after the Flood. What atheists will doubtless contend is that fewer than 10,000 years of post-Flood time is too short for the sort of speciation needed to produce the species diversity we see today. However, such an argument is ignorant of a little-known but increasingly apparent reality - microevolution and speciation transpire far more rapidly than has been previously assumed by academics, on a rapid time scale consistent with the Bible.

Not Enough Water[edit | hide]

Yet another claim commonly used by those in academia is that Earth lacks the water for a global Flood which, according to Genesis 7:19 covered the mountains.[55]. But this too reflects ignorance of new discoveries and what the Bible actually teaches.

It is a common misconception that the only source of water for the Biblical Flood was rainwater. However Biblically there were two sources of water, rain from above, and water from below, referred to as the "fountains of the deep."

And it is exactly this source of water, from deep within the Earth, which is being discovered.

  • In March 2002 National Geographic reported the discovery, through laboratory studies replicating the conditions of the Earth's core, that there may well be more water within the Earth than outside it - as much as five times more.[56]
  • In February 2007 National Geographic reported the discovery, made via sonar, of a large amount of water equivalent in size to the Atlantic Ocean locked deep below the Earth's surface, contained in wet rocks. While the National Geographic article downplayed the water's relevance to a Noahic Flood by suggesting rocks contained less than 0.1% water, newer discoveries suggest the real figure is around 1.5%.[57]
  • In March 2014 a rare diamond was discovered containing ringwoodite, a mineral formed only by the intense subsurface pressures within the Earth's mantle. The diamond also was composed of 1.5% water, indicating that there is a substantial amount of water deep within the Earth. [58]
  • In June 2014 Time Magazine, PBS, and other news agencies publicized the discovery of a massive subterranean ocean, three times the size of any ocean on Earth's surface, that could prove the source for the world's seas. [59]

Furthermore these discoveries are in addition to already-identified fossil aquifers such as the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, Ogallala Aquifer, and Kalahari Desert Aquifers which contain massive amounts of ancient freshwater locked deep below the Earth's surface. Even aside from mountain growth rates, there is clearly enough water to cover the mountains during the Flood.

Vegetation Death From Ocean Salinity[edit | hide]

Another favorite assertion by atheists is that vegetation would die from a global Flood because of seawater salinity, which superficially sounds like a good claim until one realizes that the oceans have not always been this salty.

According to NASA, evaporating ocean water, weathering of rocks, and sea ice formation - all of which would have coincided with a global Flood - cause increased ocean salinity. The oceans during the time of Noah's Flood would not have been as salty prior to the massive evaporation of said Flood, and the weathering of rocks which released large amounts of minerals (including salt) would have been an ongoing process. The creation of the ice caps likely occurred after the Flood due to the disruption of ocean currents.

A 2012 study published in Science determined that the saltier parts of the oceans got 4% saltier over the last 50 years. [61] While the study attributed salinity alteration to global warming, had such a rate occurred constantly throughout history the oceans would have doubled in saltiness in less than 1300 years, and roughly 4,000 years have passed since the Flood. Thus, the oceans would logically have been far less salty during the Flood, allowing vegetation to survive.

How Was the Waste Handled?[edit | hide]

Biblically the animals were cooperating in the journey. Noah certainly could not have gathered them otherwise. God's authority here is the same as in the book of Daniel when the lions were kept from harming Daniel, and in 1 Kings 17 when God used ravens to bring Elijah food.

Eight people would have doubtless found moving the waste impossible, but the work was certainly delegated among the animals who themselves aided in moving and managing the waste. That the animals were not simply bystanders during the passage but actively involved is clear from how the dove and raven aided Noah in bringing the journey to a close.

Radiometric Dating Disagrees[edit | hide]

See also Creationism - Radiometric Dating

That radiometric dates are incorrect is evident from other evidence supporting a young Creation such as human population growth rates, rapid microevolutionary rates, and the existence of dinosaur soft tissue. Rather than the constant clocks they are portrayed as, radiometric decay is drastically altered by volcanic activity. Nor is volcanism the only factor which can alter radiometric dating of isotopes such as Carbon-14.

Many of the factors known to alter carbon-14 dating, such as volcanism, upwelling of deep ocean water, and dissolving limestone carbonate would all logically have transpired during a global Flood, severely altering radiometric dates. The "fountains of the deep" breaking up in Genesis 7 logically involved severe underwater volcanic activity as well as upwelling of deep ocean water.

Furthermore the fossil record and geologic record contain evidence of just such underwater volcanism causing mass extinction. In 2009 it was discovered that an ancient volcano had occurred in a shallow sea near modern-day China, killing marine life around the world and instantly fossilizing life in the immediate area.[63] According to Professor Paul Wagnall who authored the paper, "The abrupt extinction of marine life we can clearly see in the fossil record firmly links giant volcanic eruptions with global environmental catastrophe, a correlation that has often been controversial."[64]

What Happened to the Dinosaurs?[edit | hide]

See also Canopy Theory

Giant lizards, dinosaurs, were not the only types of life that grew to gigantic size before the Flood. There were giant prehistoric bears (Arctodus Simus), giant elephants (Mammoths), giant sloths (Megatherium), giant dragonflies (Meganeura), giant rodents (Josephoartigasia Monesi), giant sharks (Megalodon), giant snakes (Titanoboa), giant beavers (Castoroides), giant vultures (Teratornis), and giant tigers (Sabertoothed Tigers).

So why is there so much disagreement over classifying today's reptiles as the direct descendants of the dinosaurs? Dinosaurs are classified into two groups, bird-hipped (Ornithischia) and lizard-hipped (Saurischia). Some of the most impressively towering dinosaurs, like Tyrannosaurus Rex, had very different hip/leg structures than today's reptiles which allowed them to tower upright over other creatures.[65]

While Satan is commonly considered to have taken the form of a snake when tempting Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden he is elsewhere referred to as a great dragon (Revelation 12:9, 20:2; Isaiah 27:1). The Hebrew word "nachash" translated "serpent" in reference to Satan in Genesis 3:14 is also used to refer to "fiery flying serpents" in Isaiah 14:29; Numbers 21:6-9; and Deuteronomy 8:15.[66]

Indeed, in Isaiah 27:1 God even says He will destroy Satan calling Satan not only a "dragon" (Hebrew tanniyn) and a leviathan (see Job 41) but a piercing, crooked serpent (Hebrew nachash). As such, nachash should perhaps be translated not as serpent but as reptile, since it can also be used to describe dragons/dinosaurs. Note also that when Moses' rod transformed into a nachash it was so fearsome that he, a man who once killed an Egyptian overseer in hand-to-hand combat to protect others (Exodus 2:11), fled from it-suggesting something other than a simple snake. (Exodus 4:3)

It is thus reasonable to assume that Satan actually took the form of a dinosaur. And God cursed Satan to crawl in the dust changing his method of locomotion - the same difference which today separates lizards from prehistoric dinosaurs.

Thus, dinosaurs simply shrank following the Flood given the reduction in atmosphere which had previously served as a greenhouse-like canopy, as did many other types of life. Although Canopy Theory, the Creationist theory that pre-Flood life grew bigger because of a thicker atmosphere and higher oxygen levels, was for many years scoffed at by the scientific community, new discoveries have vindicated it.

In 2007 it was discovered that ancient dragonflies had reached their massive proportions because of oxygen levels 50% higher than today's.[67] And in 2012 analysis of fossilized raindrop impressions proved that Earth's atmosphere was once much thicker than it is today.[68]

References[edit | hide]

  1. Taylor, Joe (2012, October 12). Dinosaurs: What Real Evidence Do You Have They Were Buried Rapidly? Don’t Just Say Noah’s Flood. Ask John Mackay.
  2. Wagner, Thomas (2011, May 17). "Greenhouse Ocean Study Offers Warning for Future." Newcastle University. EurekAlert. American Association for the Advancement of Science.
  3. Yale Environment 360 (2011, May 17). "Ancient Ocean Sediments Show Mass Die-Offs in Eras of High CO2."
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hand, Greg (2011, March 17). Fossils Record Ancient Migrations & Trilobite Orgies. University of Cincinnati.
    Saltzman, Matthew R. Trilobite Mass Extinction Event at the Boundary of the Elvinia and Taenicephalus Biozones, Yellowstone National Park. Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California.
  5. Angier, Natalie (2014, March 3). When Trilobites Ruled the World. The New York Times.
  6. Clarey, Tim. Trilobites: Sudden Appearance and Rapid Burial. Institute for Creation Research.
  7. Gershon, Eric (2014, March 18). Scientists Discover Ancient Fossilized Crustaceans Entombed with Eggs and Embryos. SciTech Daily.
    David J. Siveter, et al. (2014). Exceptionally Preserved 450-Million-Year-Old Ordovician Ostracods with Brood Care. Current Biology. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2014.02.040
  8. Lewis, Tanya (2014, May 29). Ichthyosaur Graveyard Discovered beneath Glacier. Scientific American.
  9. Carrington, Daisy (2014, January 26). First Dinosaur Bones in Saudi Arabia Discovered. CNN.
  10. (2014, September 9). Scientists Unveil Gigantic, Largely Complete Titanosaur Fossil. Voice of America News.
  11. Laseter, Betty (2014, September 14). Fossil Remains of Titanosaur Found In Tanzania. Maine News Online.
    (2014, September 8). News Species of Titanosaurian Dinosaur Found in Tanzania. Ohio University.
  12. Bates, M. (2013, June 26). "Ancient Embrace: Amphibian, Mammal Ancestor Buried Together." National Geographic.
  13. Gannon, Megan (2013, June 24). Ancient Odd Couple Discovered in Fossilized Burrow. LiveScience.
    Damiani, Ross; Modesto, Sean; Yates, Adam; & Neveling, Johann (2003, August 22). Earliest Evidence of Cynodont Burrowing. Proceedings of The Royal Society of London B.
  14. Braconnier, Deborah (2011, November 14). Findings Show Ancient Birds Died in Ancient Flood. Phys.org.
  15. Wilford, John Noble (1986, August 14). Texas Fossil May be Birds' Oldest Ancestor. The New York Times.
  16. Giant Dinosaurs Got a Head Start on Growth. American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    World's Oldest Dinosaur Embryo Bonebed Yields Organic Remains (2013, April 10). Phys.org.
    Chang, Alicia (2013, April 10). 190M-Year-Old Dino Bones Shed Light On Development. The Associated Press.
    Viegas, Jennifer (2013, April 10). Early Dinosaur Embryos Found in China. Discovery Magazine.
    Reisz, Huang, Roberts, Peng, Sullivan, Stein, et. al. (2013, April 10). Embryology of Early Jurassic Dinosaur from China with Evidence of Preserved Organic Remains. Nature. 496 210-214. doi:10.1038/nature11978.
  17. Vergano, Dan (2013, April 11). Dinosaurs Grew Big In A Hurry. USA Today.
  18. Jurassic Embryos Suggest Rapid Growth of Sauropod Embryos (2013, April 13). Answers in Genesis.
  19. Barnhart, Walter R. (2004, September 2). Dinosaur Nests Reinterpreted. Creation Research Society Quarterly Journal. 41 (2).
  20. (2011, May 9). Exceptional Fossils Reveal the Earliest Evidence of Social Behavior in Mammals. French National Center for Scientific Research.
    Ladevèze, Sandrine; de Muizon, Christian; Beck, Robin M. D.; Germain, Damien; & Cespedes-Paz, Ricardo (2011, June 2). Earliest Evidence of Mammalian Social Behaviour in the Basal Tertiary of Bolivia. Nature. Vol. 474. pp. 83-86. DOI:10.1038/nature09987.
  21. Chinese Scientists Claim Discovery of Earth's Largest Dinosaur Site. CBC News.
  22. Eunjeung Cha, Ariana (2010, January 26). China Spends Billions to Study Dinosaur Fossils at Sites of Major Discoveries. Washington Post.
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  24. Gannon, M. (2015, December 3). "What Killed the Mammoths of Waco?" Smithsonian Magazine.
  25. Fiorillo, A.R. (2004, December). "The Dinosaurs of Arctic Alaska." Scientific American.
  26. "Riddle of the Bones: Are They All the Same Species?" PBS.'
  27. Stein, R. (2006, September 21). "3.3 Million Years Later, Skeleton of Girl Found." Washington Post.
  28. W.P. Woodring, "Marine Pleistocene of California," Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleocology, Vol. 2, Paleoecology, H.S. Ladd editor, Washington: The Geological Society of North America, Memoir 67, 1957, p. 594, 595.
  29. Henry N. Andrews, Studies in Paleobotany, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1961, pp. 189, 201-202.
  30. Wilfred Francis, Coal: Its Formation and Composition, London: Edward Arnold Ltd., 1961, pp. 17-19.
  31. W.B. Wright, The Quarternary Ice Age, p. 111, cited by Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval, Garden City: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1955, p. 57, 58.
  32. J.B. Birdsell, Human Evolution, Chicago: Rand McNally, 1972, p. 141.
  33. Thomas H. Clark and Colin W. Stearn, The Geological Evolution of North America, New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1960, p. 88.
  34. Derek Ager, Principles of Paleoecology, San Francisco: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1963, p. 249.
  35. Charles Schuchert and Carl O. Dunbar, Textbook of Geology pt. 2, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1933, p. 212.
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  37. Louis V. Pirrson and Charles Schuchert, Text-Book of Geology, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1920, p. 711, 712, 739, 826.
  38. William H. Twenhofel and Robert R. Shrock, Invertebrate Paleontology, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1935, p. 19.
  39. Derek Ager, Principles of Paleoecology, San Francisco: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1963, p. 108.
  40. Morris, J.D. (2001). "Does Nearly Every Culture Have a Tradition of a Global Flood?" Institute for Creation Research.
  41. "Flood Legends from Around the World." Northwest Creation Network.
  42. "The Great Flood." FirstPeople.us.
    "Algonquin Flood Myth." FirstPeople.us.
  43. "The Voice, the Flood, and the Turtle." FirstPeople.us.
  44. "Yellowstone Valley and the Great Flood." FirstPeople.us.
  45. "Serpent and the Great Flood." FirstPeople.us.
  46. "Lakota Creation Myth." FirstPeople.us.
  47. "The Flood on Superstition Mountain." FirstPeople.us.
  48. Country Comparison: Population Growth Rate. CIA World Factbook.
  49. Gottesman, David S., & Gottesman, Ruth L. The Present is the Key to the Past. American Museum of Natural History.
  50. Country Comparison: Life Expectancy At Birth. CIA World Factbook.
  51. Matson, Dave. Young-Earth 'Proof' #25. Infidels.
  52. What is Microevolution? Understanding Evolution. University of California Museum of Paleontology.
  53. Woodmorappe, J. (2014, March 2). "How Could Noah Fit the Animals on the Ark and Care for Them?" Answers in Genesis.
  54. Skelly, David K. Rapid Evolution. Yale University. School of Forestry & Environmental Studies.
  55. University of Washington (August 14, 2012). "New Book Explores 'Noah's Flood': Says Bible and Science Can Get Along." ScienceDaily.
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