Route of the Exodus
For a good map showing some of these locations, see Bible-History.com. Known locations are bolded.The Israelites may have been known as the Thamud during the Exodus. They share similarities to the ancient Sabaeans (Yemen) as well.
Notice that the Israelites actually reached Canaan only 2 years after crossing the Red Sea, about 2 years and 2 months after leaving Egypt. (Numbers 12-13) They attempted to capture it, fighting the Amorites in Edom, and failed miserably - their rebellion led to God sending them to wander for 38 years in the wilderness. So they actually left the Canaanite region after arriving it, and then wandered in an unknown area for 38 years.
What locations are mentioned during the Exodus tend to be to the east, south, or northeast of the Dead Sea. The Exodus as such ranged through modern-day Jordan and possibly parts of Saudi Arabia and Syria as well. Given the desert wastelands through which they traveled the priority was clearly water, and they would have stopped at wadis, which are essentially oases. Possible locations include Wadi Rum (Valley of the Moon), Wadi Hasa (Wadi Zered), Mada'in Saleh (Al-Hijr or Hegra, key city of the Thamud), Wadi Rabigh (Medina), Wadi Hanifa, Arabah, and Cherith.
Timeline after leaving Egypt
- Rameses to Succoth (Exodus 12:37; 13:17-19; Numbers 33:3-5) Succoth was a city east of the Jordan River. (Joshua 13:27) However because this would be so far northeast, an alternate possibility, Sokho (Socoh) in the Elah Valley may be more likely. (Joshua 15:35)
- Avoided land of Philistines, went through Wilderness of Red Sea (Exodus 13:17-18) The Philistines lived near modern-day Gaza where Palestine is today.
- Succoth to E'tham on edge of wilderness (Exodus 13:20; Numbers 33:6)
- Camped before Pi-ha-hiroth between Migdol and sea next to Ba'alze'phon, between wilderness and sea (Exodus 14:2-3,10; Numbers 33:7)
- Crossed Red Sea, Pharaoh's army dies (Exodus 14:21-15:4; Numbers 33:8)
- Wilderness of Shur/Etham to Marah (Exodus 15:22-23; Numbers 33:8)
2.5 months (Exodus 16:1), 40 year period of manna begins (Exodus 16:35)
- Elim, an oasis with 12 wells of water and 70 palm trees (Exodus 15:26-27; Numbers 33:9)
- Wilderness of Sin between Elim and Sinai by the Red Sea (Exodus 16:1; Numbers 33:10-11)
- Dophkah to Alush (Numbers 33:12)
- Rephidim, no water, Moses smote Rock of Horeb to bring forth water, was then named Massah and Meribah; Amalekites attacked Israel here, altar named Jehovah-Nissi (Exodus 17:1-16; Numbers 33:14; Deuteronomy 1:19; 9:22)
- Met by Jethro priest of Midian, Moses' father in law (Exodus 18:1-27)
3 months (Exodus 19:1)
- Rephidim to Desert of Sinai to Wilderness of Sinai (Exodus 19:1-2; Numbers 33:15)
- Mount Sinai, Law given, instructions for Tabernacle and priesthood, Aaron leads idolatry, plague and death of Israelites (Exodus 19:3-40:38) In my opinion this seems most likely Jebel al-Madhbah, but there is considerable debate over this subject.
2 years, 1 month (Exodus 40:17)
- Tabernacle created (Exodus 40:17-38)
2 years, 2 months (Numbers 1:1)
- Israel numbered at Wilderness of Sinai, passover kept (Numbers 1:2-9:14)
2 years, 2 months, 20 days (Numbers 10:11)
- Cloud leaves Temple, goes to wilderness of Paran. (Numbers 10:12)
- Taberah/Kibroth-Hattaavah, Israelites killed by plague of quail for lusting. (Numbers 11:1-34; 33:16; Deuteronomy 9:22)
- Hazeroth. (Numbers 11:35; 33:17)
- Rithmah to Rimmonparez. (Numbers 33:19)
- Libnah to Rissah. (Numbers 33:21)
- Kehelalath to Mount Shapher. (Numbers 33:23)
- Haradah to Makheloth. (Numbers 33:25)
- Tahath to Tarah. (Numbers 33:27)
- Mithcah to Hashmonah. (Numbers 33:29)
- Moseroth to Benejaakan, mentioned as place where Aaron dies later, perhaps includes Mount Hor. (Numbers 33:31; Deuteronomy 10:6)
- Horhagidgad/Gudgodah to Jotbathah/Jotbath the land of rivers of waters, Levites separated to bear the Ark of the Covenant, Moses goes up into Mount Sinai again. (Numbers 33:33; Deuteronomy 10:7-11) Jotbathah may be near Yotvata.
- Ebronah to Eziongaber near Elath. (Numbers 33:35) Eziongaber is near Edom and Moab. (Deuteronomy 2:8) It appears to be Ezion-Geber, a seaport on the north of the Gulf of Aqaba near Eilat. Ebronah is likewise nearby in the region of Elat and Aqaba, Jordan.
38 year period begins (Deuteronomy 2:14)
- Kadesh/Kadeshbarnea, the "great and terrible" Wilderness of Zin/Paran, spies sent into Canaan. (Numbers 12:16-13:17,26; 33:36-37; Deuteronomy 1:19) There is an ancient city of Kadesh or Qadesh mentioned in connection with the Canaanites which opposed King Thutmose III around 1500 B.C., it was part of the Mitanni/Hurri empire. The empire appears to have been considerably larger than typically assumed by scholars, with Kadesh probably to the northeast of the Dead Sea.
- Spies examined Wilderness of Zin, Rehob, Hebron, Anak, brook/valley of Eshcol, mount of Amorites. (Numbers 13:21-25; Deuteronomy 1:20-25) Hebron is a well-known city in Palestine. Rehov or Rehob is a well-excavated ancient city on the northeast edge of the Dead Sea, in Israel's Jordan Valley.
- Some tried fighting the Amorites in Edom, were chased to Horman/Hormah (Numbers 15:40-45; Deuteronomy 1:44) Edom is a region south of the Dead Sea.
- Around 15,000 Israelites die in plague/earthquake/fire for rebelling against God (Numbers 16)
- Desert of Zin in Kadesh, Miriam dies, Moses brings water from rock at Meribah (Numbers 20:1-13)
- Israel journeys around Edom (Numbers 20:14-21)
- Mount Hor, Mosera near coast of Edom, Aaron dies (Numbers 20:22-29; 33:37-39; Deuteronomy 10:6)
- Hormah; Arad, a Canaanite king attacks Israel taking prisoners (Numbers 21:1-3, 33:40)
- Journeyed by Mount Hor near Red Sea next to Edom, fiery serpent plague kills many Israelites (Numbers 21:4-9; Deuteronomy 2:1)
- Zalmonah to Punon (Numbers 33:42)
- Oboth to Ijeabarim/Iim in wilderness near Moab to the east (Numbers 21:10-11; 33:44)
38 year period ends (Deuteronomy 2:7,14)
- Valley of Zared/Zered (Numbers 21:12; Deuteronomy 2:13-14) This very definitely appears to be Wadi Zered.
- Arnon/Ar in wilderness of Amorite coasts near Moab and Ar. (Numbers 21:13-15; Deuteronomy 2:9-29) Arnon is both the name of a city on the lower east coast of the Dead Sea and a nearby river known as the Wadi Mujib.
- Be'er, Israelites given water. (Numbers 21:16-17) Perhaps near Be'er Sheva?
- Mattanah to Nahaliel (Numbers 21:19)
- Bamoth Valley in Moab, top of Pisgah toward Jeshimon, appears to be where Moses dies later (Numbers 21:19-20) Appears to be Bamoth-Baal as mentioned in the Moabite Stone. The Pisgah region is east of the Jordan River and northeast of the Dead Sea.
- Sihon King of Amorites refuses Israel passage, attacks them at Jahaz, Israel captures land from Jabbok to Arnon to Ammon's border, captured cities of Heshbon, Dibon, Aroer (on bank of river Arnon), Gilead, Nophah, near Medebah (Numbers 21:21-31; Deuteronomy 2:30-37) Probably includes Dibongad (Dibon?) and Almondiblathaim. (Numbers 33:46) Medeba is a major city in Jordan. Dibon appears to be Dhiban, Jordan. The Arnon River is a known locations in Jordan also called the Wadi Mujib.
- Israel fights other Amorites at Edrei, captures 60 cities including Jaazer, Bashan, and the Argob region (Numbers 21:32-35; Deuteronomy 3:1-11) Edrei is the ancient city of Dara'a and was mentioned in the military annals of Pharaoh Thutmose III. It is northeast of the Dead Sea on the border between Jordan and Syria and somewhat close to the Israel border as well.
- Mountains of Abarim (Numbers 33:47). This is a mountain range which crosses modern-day Jordan.
40th year, 11th month (Deuteronomy 1:1-4)
- Bethjesimoth to Abelshittim in plains of Moab near Jericho, Balaam blesses Israel (Numbers 22:1-24:25; 33:49-56) Abelshittim appears to be Abila which Josephus identified as a town once full of palm trees, it is an ancient city northeast of the Dead Sea.
- Shittim, Israelites commit whoredom with Moabites, 24,000 die in plague (Numbers 25:1-18)
- Moses dies on Mount Nebo, top of Pisgah near Jericho in land of Moab near Bethpeor. (Deuteronomy 34:5-8) It is a mountain in Jordan that is part of the Mountains of Abarim.
Possible Pharaoh of the Exodus
Pharaoh appears to have been Thutmose II (1493-1479 B.C.) or Thutmose III who reigned 1479-1425 B.C., including as a coregent with his mother Hatshepsut for two decades.
Arguments for Thutmose II
|“||"The period between the "new king" of the Bible (Aahmes I.) and Thothmes II. (the second in succession to him), when we suppose the Exodus to have taken place, quite agrees with the reckoning of Scripture.
Now this Thothmes II. began his reign very brilliantly. But after a while there is a perfect blank in the monumental records about him. But we read of a general revolt after his death among the nations whom his father had conquered. Of course, one could not expect to find on Egyptian monuments an account of the disasters which the nation sustained at the Exodus, nor how Pharaoh and his host had perished in the Red Sea. But we do find in his reign the conditions which we should have expected under such circumstances, viz., a brief, prosperous reign, then a sudden collapse; the king dead; no son to succeed him; the throne occupied by the widow of the Pharaoh, and for twenty years no attempt to recover the supremacy of Egypt over the revolted nations in Canaan and east of the Jordan.
Lastly, the character of his queen, as it appears on the monuments, is that of a proud and bitterly superstitious woman, just such as we would have expected to encourage Pharaoh in "hardening his heart" against Jehovah. But the chain of coincidences does not break even here. From the Egyptian documents we learn that in the preceding reign - that is, just before the children of Israel entered the desert of Sinai - the Egyptians ceased to occupy the mines which they had until then worked in that peninsula. Further, we learn that, during the latter part of Israel's stay in the wilderness, the Egyptian king, Thothmes III., carried on and completed his wars in Canaan, and that just immediately before the entry of Israel into Palestine the great confederacy of Canaanitish kings against him was quite broken up.
This explains the state in which Joshua found the country, so different from that compact power which forty years before had inspired the spies with such terror; and also helps us to understand how, at the time of Joshua, each petty king just held his own city and district, and how easily the fear of a nation, by which even the dreaded Pharaoh and his host had perished, would fall upon the inhabitants of the land (compare also Balaam's words in Numbers 23:22; 24:8)."
- His reign better fits the starting date for the Exodus.
- The earliest inscription of the land of the Shasu of Yahweh dates to 1400 B.C., so the Israelites had finished their 40-year Exodus and arrived in Canaan by this time. This corresponds perfectly with Thutmose II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
- A lack of records during his reign and destruction of references to him by later Pharaohs suggests he suffered major disgrace.
- Unusually he left no heir, resulting in his wife Hatshepsut ruling when he died, consistent with a Biblical plague killing his firstborn son.
- Records of him fighting Shasu Bedouin in Sinai suggest he was fighting the Hebrews during the time of the Exodus.
- His mummy is the only mummy for a Pharaoh from that time period covered with diseased cysts, supporting the Biblical account of plagues afflicting the Egyptians. Graves of wealthy children who died unusually young near the time of his reign support the Biblical plague on the firstborn sons of the Egyptians.
Arguments for Thutmose III
- Firstborn son died, consistent with the plagues mentioned in Exodus.
- Greatest military campaigner of the Pharaohs, making it unlikely an earlier Pharaoh was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Otherwise he would have lacked the troops to achieve his victories had the major loss of troops from the Red Sea crossing occurred earlier.
- Later pharaohs did not do the extensive campaigns he had, suggesting a severe loss of troops during his lifetime, possibly the campaign against the Shasu/Hebrews.
- Military style resembles that later used by the Hebrews in taking over Canaan. Thutmose III achieved his victories over Canaan by conquering city by city, taking the weakest first. This could have served as inspiration for later Hebrew technique in conquering Canaan, and aided in their success. They could have seen Thutmose use just such a style while they were enslaved, and having escaped knew the tactics of Egypt's greatest military tactician.
- Unlike other Pharaohs his mummy was very poorly preserved and protected, and perhaps was not given as much care by later Pharaohs due to the shame of a defeat at the hands of the Hebrews.
Crossing of Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba
Starting Point of Exodus Near Canaan
The crossing appears to have been over the Gulf of Aqaba. Egypt at the time of Thutmose III ruled the Sinai Peninsula, so the Sinai Peninsula was likely their starting point when leaving Egypt. In Exodus 13:17-18 it says that while escaping Egypt they avoided the land of the Philistines near Canaan, so it appears they actually started out very close to the Land of Canaan when leaving Egypt, likely somewhere in the northern Sinai Peninsula.
The Israelites when leaving Egypt actually began near their intended destination of Canaan. God led them in a circular route however so they would not have to immediately fight the entire nation of Canaan right away, which might have resulted in them having to fight the Egyptians at their backs as well. (Exodus 33:17-18) This is further supported by the fact that the second waypoint on their journey was Succoth, another Canaanite location. (Exodus 13:20; compare Joshua 13:27; Judges 8:5-16; 1 Kings 7:46)
|“||Exodus 13:17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt:
18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt.
As ironic as going in a nearly complete circle might seem, it had several advantages.
- It allowed God to destroy the Egyptians using the sea, rather than risk having Israel caught between two opposing forces, the Philistines and Egyptians.
- It threw off further Egyptian pursuit. The Egyptians would never have guessed the fleeing Israelites would intend to return to the very location they began so close to, Canaan, once escaping to the other side of the Red Sea.
- It allowed Israel to come at Canaan from an unexpected direction, straight through a seemingly impregnable wilderness, adding the element of surprise while attacking the Canaanites' weakness. Rather than coming via the well-known (and likely far better defended) Egyptian route, it allowed the Israelites to come at the Canaanites from behind.
- It provided time for the frightened Israelites, newly freed slaves likely unaccustomed to battle, to work up their courage and confidence in their God in readiness for the battles ahead.
Exodus 14:21 states that it was a strong east wind responsible for causing the dry land which would seemingly disqualify a point close to the mouth of the Red Sea (Strait of Tiran), as water would otherwise keep flowing in. They had to have been far enough south along the gulf that Pharaoh thought them "hemmed in" by the sea (Exodus 14:3) but not far enough south for wind to be ineffective in changing tide levels. Pharaoh likely thought he had their escape cut off from the North to stop their fleeing into Arabia.
Although I have been skeptical of Ron Wyatt's claims in the past, I notice that he has identified Nuweiba as the likely crossing site, which mirrors my own train of thought. Given sea elevation a crossing should have been between the Elat and Aragonese Deeps. For a good analysis critical of both the Tinan and Nuweiba crossings, see Franz's article (whose conclusion of a Suez crossing I nonetheless consider far more unlikely given the Biblical description).
The major question raised by Franz and others of a Nuweiba crossing seems to involve the decline near the Nuweiba crossing, but I would expect water to have eroded what once was a higher passage. Personally I believe Rameses and Succoth as locations were on the northern top of the Sinai Peninsula. Thus the Israelites before crossing the Red Sea's Gulf of Aqaba would have bypassed the Canaanite region of the Philistines, travelling south down the Red Sea while being pursued by Pharaoh from the North, before crossing over.
While a Strait of Tinan crossing would seem the second-most likely scenario, I question whether it would have been close enough to ancient Egyptian cities to fit the description of a journey from Egypt, close enough to the land of the Philistines to fit Exodus 13:17-18, and close enough to Pharaoh's main army for him to have been able to quickly pursue them. The evidence just doesn't seem to fit the travel time or locations mentioned.
For one thing, millions of Israelites would have had to have been fleeing from a location near the land of the Philistines, apparently near Canaan, and that would be a very long distance to travel - not to mention that much of it would be going the wrong way they wanted to go. Given the Israelite's fickle nature, they would likely have turned on Moses long before travelling southwest down the full length of the Gulf of Aqaba.
Numbers 33 contains a summary of the journeys with some additional detail not seen in Exodus.
|“||Numbers 33:1 These are the journeys of the children of Israel, which went forth out of the land of Egypt with their armies under the hand of Moses and Aaron.
2 And Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys by the commandment of the LORD: and these are their journeys according to their goings out.
3 And they departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the morrow after the passover the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians.
4 For the Egyptians buried all their firstborn, which the LORD had smitten among them: upon their gods also the LORD executed judgments.
5 And the children of Israel removed from Rameses, and pitched in Succoth.
6 And they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham, which is in the edge of the wilderness.
7 And they removed from Etham, and turned again unto Pihahiroth, which is before Baalzephon: and they pitched before Migdol.
8 And they departed from before Pihahiroth, and passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness, and went three days' journey in the wilderness of Etham, and pitched in Marah.
9 And they removed from Marah, and came unto Elim: and in Elim were twelve fountains of water, and threescore and ten palm trees; and they pitched there.
10 And they removed from Elim, and encamped by the Red sea.
11 And they removed from the Red sea, and encamped in the wilderness of Sin.
12 And they took their journey out of the wilderness of Sin, and encamped in Dophkah.
13 And they departed from Dophkah, and encamped in Alush.
14 And they removed from Alush, and encamped at Rephidim, where was no water for the people to drink.
15 And they departed from Rephidim, and pitched in the wilderness of Sinai.
16 And they removed from the desert of Sinai, and pitched at Kibrothhattaavah.
17 And they departed from Kibrothhattaavah, and encamped at Hazeroth.
18 And they departed from Hazeroth, and pitched in Rithmah.
19 And they departed from Rithmah, and pitched at Rimmonparez.
20 And they departed from Rimmonparez, and pitched in Libnah.
21 And they removed from Libnah, and pitched at Rissah.
22 And they journeyed from Rissah, and pitched in Kehelathah.
23 And they went from Kehelathah, and pitched in mount Shapher.
24 And they removed from mount Shapher, and encamped in Haradah.
25 And they removed from Haradah, and pitched in Makheloth.
26 And they removed from Makheloth, and encamped at Tahath.
27 And they departed from Tahath, and pitched at Tarah.
28 And they removed from Tarah, and pitched in Mithcah.
29 And they went from Mithcah, and pitched in Hashmonah.
30 And they departed from Hashmonah, and encamped at Moseroth.
31 And they departed from Moseroth, and pitched in Benejaakan.
32 And they removed from Benejaakan, and encamped at Horhagidgad.
33 And they went from Horhagidgad, and pitched in Jotbathah.
34 And they removed from Jotbathah, and encamped at Ebronah.
35 And they departed from Ebronah, and encamped at Eziongaber.
36 And they removed from Eziongaber, and pitched in the wilderness of Zin, which is Kadesh.
37 And they removed from Kadesh, and pitched in mount Hor, in the edge of the land of Edom.
38 And Aaron the priest went up into mount Hor at the commandment of the LORD, and died there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the first day of the fifth month.
39 And Aaron was an hundred and twenty and three years old when he died in mount Hor.
40 And king Arad the Canaanite, which dwelt in the south in the land of Canaan, heard of the coming of the children of Israel.
41 And they departed from mount Hor, and pitched in Zalmonah.
42 And they departed from Zalmonah, and pitched in Punon.
43 And they departed from Punon, and pitched in Oboth.
44 And they departed from Oboth, and pitched in Ijeabarim, in the border of Moab.
45 And they departed from Iim, and pitched in Dibongad.
46 And they removed from Dibongad, and encamped in Almondiblathaim.
47 And they removed from Almondiblathaim, and pitched in the mountains of Abarim, before Nebo.
48 And they departed from the mountains of Abarim, and pitched in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho.
49 And they pitched by Jordan, from Bethjesimoth even unto Abelshittim in the plains of Moab.
- ↑ Edersheim, A. (1890)."The Bible History, Old Testament." p. 134. Eerdmans.
- ↑ Medrano, K. (2017,December 17). "Ancient Egypt: Archaeologists Discover Child Graves Containing Jewelry and Amulets in Temple Quarry." Newsweek.